Anabolism and catabolism as tame.

Anabolism and catabolism as tame.
Metabolism is a set of biochemical processes that occur in any living organism – including the human body-and are aimed at ensuring vital activity. These biochemical processes allow us to grow, reproduce, heal wounds, and adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Most people use the term "metabolism" incorrectly, meaning either anabolism or catabolism.

The word "metabolism" comes from the Greek noun "metabole", meaning "change", and the Greek verb "metaballein", which literally means "change".

Anabolism and catabolism
Anabolism is the creation of matter – a sequence of chemical reactions that build or synthesize molecules from smaller components. As a rule, anabolic reactions are accompanied by energy consumption.

b2ap3_thumbnail_176947_900.ARD catabolism refers to the destruction of matter – a series of chemical decomposition reactions in which large molecules are split into smaller fragments. As a rule, the process proceeds with the release of energy.

Anabolism creates matter and consumes energy by synthesizing large substances from small components with energy absorption during biochemical processes. Anabolism, or biosynthesis, allows the body to create new cells and maintain homeostasis of all tissues.

The body uses simple molecules to create more complex ones. Similarly, a Builder will use simple building materials, such as bricks, to build a building. Anabolic reactions occurring in our body use several simple substances and molecules to produce (synthesize) a huge variety of end products. Growth and mineralization of bones, a set of muscle mass-examples of anabolism.

During anabolic processes, polymers are formed from monomers. A polymer is a large molecule with a complex structure consisting of many tiny molecules that resemble each other. These small molecules are called monomers. For example: amino acids that are simple molecules (monomers) in a series of anabolic chemical reactions form proteins that are large molecules with a complex three-dimensional structure (polymer).

The main anabolic hormones are:

Growth hormone is a hormone synthesized in the pituitary gland. Growth hormone stimulates the secretion of the liver cells of the hormone somatomedin, which activates the growth processes.
IGF-1 and other insulin-like growth factors are hormones that stimulate the formation of protein and sulfates. IGF-1 and IGF-2 are involved in the growth of the uterus and placenta, as well as in the initial stages of fetal growth during pregnancy.
Insulin is a hormone synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. It regulates the level of glucose in the blood. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin.
Testosterone is a male hormone that is formed mainly in the testicles. Testosterone determines the development of secondary male sexual characteristics, in particular, a low voice and a beard. It also contributes to the growth of muscle and bone mass.
Oestrogen is a female hormone that is formed primarily in the ovaries. It also participates in the strengthening of bone tissue and affects the development of female sexual characteristics, such as mammary glands. In addition, estrogen is involved in the thickening of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) and other aspects of the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Catabolism destroys matter and gives us energy. During catabolism, large molecular complexes break down into small molecules, and this process is accompanied by the release of energy. Catabolism provides our body with the energy that is necessary for any physical activity – from the cellular level to movements of the entire body.

Catabolic chemical reactions in living cells break down large polymers to simple monomers from which they are formed. For example:

Polysaccharides break down into monosaccharides. Complex carbohydrates such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose are polysaccharides. Simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, ribose, and fructose, are monosaccharides.
Nucleic acids break down into nucleotides. Nucleic acids are the chemical basis of life and heredity. All our genetic information is encoded in them; they serve as carriers of genetic information. Examples are RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids break down to purines, pyrimidines and pentose, which among other functions is involved in supplying our body with energy.
Proteins break down to amino acids. Amino acids formed during catabolism can be reused in anabolic reactions, go to the synthesis of other amino acids, or turn into other chemical compounds. Sometimes protein molecules break down into amino acids to synthesize glucose, which enters the blood.
When we eat, our body breaks down organic compounds. This process of decomposition is accompanied by the release of energy, which is stored in the body in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.

The main catabolic hormones are:

Cortisol is also known as the "stress hormone" because it is involved in the response to stress and anxiety. The hormone is produced by the adrenal cortex, which is part of the adrenal gland. Cortisol increases blood pressure and blood sugar, and also suppresses the immune response.
Glucagon is a hormone formed in the alpha cells of the pancreas. It stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels. Glycogen is a carbohydrate that is stored in the liver and used as fuel during physical activity. When glucagon is released into the blood, it forces liver cells to destroy glycogen, and it enters the bloodstream as a ready-made fuel (sugar).
Epinephrine is a hormone that is formed in the brain substance of the adrenal gland; epinephrine is also known as epinephrine. Adrenaline accelerates the heart rate, increases the strength of contractions of the heart muscle and expands the bronchioles in the lungs. This hormone is part of the fight-or-flight response, which in humans and animals is a response to fright.
Cytokines-these hormones are small protein molecules that have a specific effect on how cells interact with each other, how they exchange information, and how they behave. Examples are interleukins and lymphokines, which are released during the formation of the immune response.
The energy stored in ATP is the fuel for anabolic reactions. Catabolism generates energy that anabolism uses to synthesize hormones, enzymes, sugars, and other substances necessary for cellular growth, reproduction, and tissue regeneration.

If catabolism produces more energy than anabolism requires, an excess of energy is generated. The human body stores this excess energy in the form of fat or glycogen.

Adipose tissue is relatively inactive compared to the muscles, tissues of internal organs, and other systems of our body. Due to the relatively low activity of fat cells, they use very little energy to provide vital functions in comparison with other types of cells.

Metabolism and body weight simple terms, our body mass is equal to the result "catabolism minus anabolism". In other words, the amount of energy produced in our body (catabolism) minus the amount of energy that our body consumes (anabolism).

Excess energy is stored in the form of fat or glycogen (in the form of carbohydrates, energy is stored mainly in the liver and muscle tissue).

When splitting one gram of fat, 9 kcal is released, and when splitting protein or carbohydrates-4 kcal.

Although excess weight is most often the result of the body accumulating energy in the form of fat due to its excess, sometimes the metabolism is affected by hormonal disorders or underlying chronic diseases.

There is an opinion that thin people have "accelerated metabolism", while people who are overweight or obese suffer from "slow metabolism". In fact, chronic diseases such as hypothyroidism (low thyroid activity) are not the main cause of obesity. Weight gain is mainly associated with an energy imbalance.

If you are overweight or obese, it is advisable to undergo a medical examination and make sure that the weight gain is not caused by endocrine or somatic pathology.

We cannot radically change the level of the basic metabolism-the intensity of the metabolism at rest. Long-term strategies, such as gaining muscle mass, can eventually produce the desired result. However, determining your body's energy needs and then modifying your lifestyle to meet these needs will help you reduce your body weight much faster.

Energy need
Body weight and composition. The higher the body weight, the higher the need for calories. It is also true that people with a high ratio of muscle to fat need calories more than people with a similar total mass, but with a lower percentage of muscle tissue. Individuals with a high muscle-fat ratio have a higher basal metabolic rate than people with a similar total mass, but with a lower muscle-fat ratio.

Age. As we get older, we face factors that lead to reduced energy needs. Our muscle mass is reduced, which leads to a decrease in the muscle-fat ratio. Our metabolism is gradually rearranged, which also leads to a reduction in the need for calories.

The age factors listed below reduce our energy needs:
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Thursday, 08 June 2023